Diagnosing early stage Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still a clinical challenge. Our goal in this study was to extract the NM complex volume, iron content and volume representing the entire SN, and the N1 sign as potential complementary imaging biomarkers using a single 3D magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) gradient echo sequence and to evaluate their diagnostic performance and clinical correlations in early stage PD.
Quantitative MRI using STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE): optimization for 1.5 T scanners and T1 relaxation map validation
The strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE) protocol, developed for 3T scanners, allows one to derive quantitative maps such as T1, T2*, proton density, and quantitative susceptibility mapping in about 5 min. Our aim was to adapt the STAGE sequences for 1.5T scanners which are still commonly used in clinical practice. Furthermore, the accuracy and repeatability of the STAGE-derived T1 estimate were tested.
Author(s): E. Mark Haacke, PhD,1y Ann Christine Duhaime, MD,2 Alisa D. Gean, MD,3 Gerard Riedy, MD,4 Max Wintermark, MD,5 Pratik Mukherjee, MD PhD,5,6 David L. Brody, MD,7 Thomas DeGraba, MD,8 Timothy D. Duncan, MD,9 Elie Elovic, MD,10 Robin Hurley, MD,11 Lawrence...
Imaging the Nigrosome 1 in the substantia nigra using susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping: An application to Parkinson’s disease
The purpose of this study was to create a robust high quality, rapid imaging protocol, determine a slice by slice characterization of the appearance of N1 (the “N1 sign”) and evaluate the loss of the N1 sign in order to differentiate healthy controls (HCs) from patients with PD.
Visualizing the lateral habenula using susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping
The habenulae consist of a pair of small nuclei which bridge the limbic forebrain and midbrain monoaminergic centers. They are implicated in major depressive disorders due to abnormal phasic response when provoked by a conditioned stimulus.
STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part III: Technical advances and clinical applications of a rapid multi-contrast multi-parametric brain imaging method
One major thrust in radiology today is image standardization with a focus on rapidly acquired quantitative multi-contrast information. In this paper, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of STAGE, demonstrate its contrast-to-noise (CNR) behavior relative to a large clinical data set and introduce a few new image contrasts derived from STAGE.
In this work, we review the basic concepts behind imaging iron using T2, T2*, T2′, phase and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain, liver and heart, followed by the applications of in vivo iron quantification in neurodegenerative diseases, iron tagged cells and ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles.
An interleaved sequence for simultaneous magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)
The purpose of this study was to image the entire vasculature of the brain with complete suppression of signal from background tissue using a single 3D excitation interleaved rephased/dephased multi-echo gradient echo sequence. This ensures no loss of signal from fast flow and provides co-registered susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) from the same scan.
STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part I: Creating enhanced T1 contrast and standardized susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping
The purpose of this study was to provide whole brain grey matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast enhanced T1W (T1WE) images, multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), proton density (PD) weighted images, T1 maps, PD maps, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps with minimal misregistration in scanning times < 5 min.
Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of the Cerebral Vasculature Using Ferumoxytol
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of imaging cerebral arteries and veins with ferumoxytol using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a method that uses the intrinsic nature of local magnetic fields to enhance image contrast in order to improve the visibility of various susceptibility sources and to facilitate diagnostic interpretation. In this article, we review the basics of SWI, including data acquisition, data reconstruction and post-processing.
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a new technique for quantifying magnetic susceptibility. It has already found various applications in quantifying in vivo iron content, calcifications and changes in venous oxygen saturation. The accuracy of susceptibility mapping is dependent on several factors.