Editorial: Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Neurodegeneration

Category: Papers
Related Topics: Normal/Aging, qsm

Author(s): Fuhua Yan1*, Naying He1 and E. Mark Haacke1,2
Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Published: July 2021
Read Full Editorial: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2021.724550/full

Editorial on the Research Topic

Introduction

Magnetic resonance imaging offers a wide variety of contrast mechanisms to study soft tissue in the body. Using the complex data from the SWI scans, it is possible to produce magnetic source images using a novel reconstruction method that takes the phase data and reconstructs what is referred to as a quantitative susceptibility map (QSM). The phase images represent local frequency changes caused by local changes in the magnetic field which in turn are introduced because of the presence of a magnetic source.

Some of the familiar paramagnetic materials include deoxygenated blood, hemosiderin and ferritin while some of the more familiar diamagnetic materials include calcium deposits, calcium in bone, and myelinated tissue. The ability to measure iron has clear implications if iron is involved in the pathophysiology or correlates with disease state, but it must be remembered that iron also changes as a function of age (Li Y. et al.). Also, measuring oxygen saturation would be key in stroke and potentially in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

Conclusions

In summary, there has been great progress in using QSM to study neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the different QSM methods that are available today, as long as the same approach is used for a given study and as long as the age-related iron effect is removed, this method offers a new means to study the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases that complements and generally improves upon the use of T∗2 measures of iron content (Ghassaban et al., 2018; Yan et al., 2018). The papers presented in this special issue show the potential of QSM to enhance diagnosis of patients with neurodegenerative disease. As QSM becomes more broadly accepted, no doubt other clinical applications of measuring susceptibility will emerge.

New & Related

All Resources

Iron Content in Deep Gray Matter as a Function of Age Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Multicenter Study

Iron Content in Deep Gray Matter as a Function of Age Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Multicenter Study

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resolution on iron content using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM); to verify the consistency of QSM across field strengths and manufacturers in evaluating the iron content of deep gray matter (DGM) of the human brain using subjects from multiple sites; and to establish a susceptibility baseline as a function of age for each DGM structure using both a global and regional iron analysis.

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Revealing vascular abnormalities and measuring small vessel density in multiple sclerosis lesions using USPIO

Revealing vascular abnormalities and measuring small vessel density in multiple sclerosis lesions using USPIO

In this study, an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agent, Ferumoxytol, was administered to induce an increase in susceptibility for both arteries and veins to help better reveal the cerebral microvasculature. The purpose of this work was to examine the presence of vascular abnormalities and vascular density in MS lesions using high-resolution susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).

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Quantifying Tissue Properties of the Optic Radiations Using Strategically Acquired Gradient Echo Imaging and Enhancing the Contrast Using Diamagnetic Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

Quantifying Tissue Properties of the Optic Radiations Using Strategically Acquired Gradient Echo Imaging and Enhancing the Contrast Using Diamagnetic Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

Visualization of the optic radiations is of clinical importance for diagnosing many diseases and depicting their anatomic structures for neurosurgical interventions. In this study, we quantify proton density, T1, T2*, and susceptibility of the optic radiation fiber bundles in a series of 10 healthy control participants using strategically acquired gradient echo imaging.

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